In a recent research report , adding apple cider vinegar to the growth medium resulted in anti-fungal activity comparable to that of nystatin against Candida spp.
Vancomycin-resistant strains of S. aureus are becoming common and antimicrobial agents that treat gram negative infections are becoming less effective.
Apple cider vinegar has potent anti-microbial activity. The bacterium, Acetobacter converts ethyl alcohol to acetic acid to make vinegar. It has been touted as a weight-loss supplement, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, nutritional support, antioxidant defence, and as a blood-pressure lowering supplement.
In order to investigate the activity of apple cider vinegar against three bacterial species:, E. coli, Salmonella aureus, and Candida albicans, apple cider vinegar was used to determine its antibacterial and antifungal properties.
The results showed that to restrict bacterial growth, a 1/50 dilution of neat, undiluted apple cider vinegar was required for C. albicans, a 1/2 dilution (2.5 percent acetic acidity) was required to stop S. aureus growth, and a 5 percent acetic acidity was enough to stop E. coli growth.
The study used microbes that have been extensively investigated and which activate the leucocyte pro-inflammatory cytokine cascades to measure mononuclear derived TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines, which are indicators of inflammation. When monocytes are co-cultured with apple cider vinegar, TNFα and IL-6 are decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Notably 1/10 the apple cider vinegar inhibition minimum was found for S. aureus in monocytes cultured with E-coli. Apple cider vinegar may increase phagocytic capacity in monocytes, which is an important effector function of innate immunity. Overall, monocytes treated with apple cider vinegar downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion.
Different microbial species were affected by apple cider vinegar, with decreased microbe growth, suppression of mononuclear cytokine and phagocytic responses, and inhibited pro-inflammatory responses. The minimum inhibitory dilution of apple cider vinegar needed for significant pro-inflammatory downregulation varied with each microbe. Damage to cell integrity, structural, and metabolic proteins and nuclear material was also observed in apple cider vinegar-treated S. aureus cultures.
There are two mechanisms of action for apple cider vinegar: one is attributed to the apple polyphenol content and the other is due to acetic acid, which may reduce cell hydrogen potential and may potentially facilitate diffusion across the plasma membrane.
Apple cider vinegar had a protective effect on erythrocyte, kidney and liver oxidative damage in mice fed a high cholesterol diet for 28 days.
Adding apple cider vinegar to the culture decreased the Candida count by equal to or greater than nystatin.
1. Yagnik D, Serafin V, J Shah A. Antimicrobial activity of apple cider vinegar against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans; downregulating cytokine and microbial protein expression. Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 29;8(1):1732. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-18618-x. PMID: 29379012; PMCID: PMC5788933